had an opportunity to visit an original smokehouse in Hopewell, NJ that is
beyond impressive. Knowing that this
structure likely dates to the late 1700’s, I was most impressed with how the
structure maintained itself over the years and how functional it remained.
Let me provide a brief history on these fascinating structures as well as share some images of the Hopewell, NJ structure.
A Necessity to Farm Life
you were a farm in New Jersey like many New England states, a smokehouse was a
necessity. Pigs were commonly raised
during the 17th century and butchered in the month of December in
order to be able to slaughter and preserve the meat through use of a smokehouse
also called smoak house or meat house.
earliest times, a smokehouse was a small enclosed shelter, where a fire could
be kept smoldering for weeks, which slowly released its smoke to the hanging meat
that was hung to keep it safe from vermin and thieves.
has long been known to contain compounds that act as preservatives. Phenol and
other phenolic compounds in wood smoke are both antioxidants which slow rancidification
of animal fats, and antimicrobials, which slow bacterial growth. Antimicrobials
in wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other organic acids, which
give wood smoke a low pH.
the process of smoking the meat could take days of preparation, generally the
fresh cuts of meat were packed in tubs of coarse salt for about six weeks while
the salt drew most of the water from the flesh. Then the salted meats were hung
in the smokehouse that contained a small fire which smoldered for one to two
weeks. The result was dried, long-lasting, smoke-flavored meat that would age
in the same smokehouse for up to two years before being consumed.
The Hopewell Smokehouse
its original mortar and stone, this Hopewell, NJ smokehouse is a real gem!
Estimated to date in the late 1700’s, this was used for both storing and smoking meats, as evidence by the original steel hanging system. You can clearly see the venting chamber which acts as the outtake while circular holes present air intake. These were so well made that despite minor ground shifting, they are still as strong as ever.
This structure contains stacks of original bricks which were found in the house and subsequently moved to this location. The house still contains the original, super large stone fireplace that served as the wood fire cooking area and heat generator for the home.
Without question, these early smokehouses are an opportunity to view just what living was like before refrigeration and other luxuries of our current society. I’m constantly keeping me eyes toward the fields and yards of historic areas in search of these hidden gems that started us on our hunger for smoked foods.
Is there a historic smokehouse near you? Leave us a comment to share your views. Bringing you informative recipes, techniques, and the science beyond the fire, smoke, and flavor. That’s SmokinLicious®!
With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting some 48,000 cases of food borne illness events each year, resulting in some 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths, food borne illness outbreaks are serious concerns. This is an added stress to manufacturing facilities that produce smoked food products as they must adhere to multiple regulations regarding the raw food product, smoke process and final smoked food product. The last thing a facility needs is to worry about the wood material used in the smoking process but that should be a priority for these facilities. Why?
Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aspergillus flavus have all been shown to survive on plastic material meaning that if a supplier utilizes the standard GMA pallet commonly found in the grocery industry, these microbial bacteria or viruses survive and can flourish increasing the risk that they can be introduced to new food product placed on these recycled plastic pallets.
Hosts of Contamination
With the recent outbreaks affecting romaine lettuce (from E. coli) and beef (from salmonella), attention is being drawn to other potential hosts for the transfer of the bacteria. We know the common hosts: unsanitary conditions at a farm or packaging facility, food handlers failing to employ personal hygiene standards prior to working with food, food exposed to climate conditions that stimulate the bacteria development. One potential host that has not been fully publicized is the packaging materials used to transport. Unfortunately, it is the lack of enforcement in this area that puts the smokehouse industry at further risk.
Raw Material Transport
Many smokehouse operations purchase wood product for the smoke infusion from companies that supply the wood chip in paper bags that are then stacked on wooden or plastic GMA pallets. Although some of these suppliers may be able to attest that the wood chips have been kiln dried or heat treated to a certain temperature, none confirm to a heat level that would kill all the bacteria previously listed. Specifically, listeria, which requires a temperature of 74 °C/165.2 °F to be killed, is a key concern in smokehouse operations that include meat, poultry and fish products.
The risk is elevated by the potential for these bags to be penetrated by a stray nail from a wood pallet or sharp edge of a plastic pallet. If the pallet contains the bacteria, it is a host that can transmit to anything it has contact with.
Decreasing Your Risk
In previous testing of wood pallets, one or more of salmonella, E. coli, and listeria were found to be present in as much as 6.8 million spores/gram which is classified as an extremely high count. Given that domestically, there is no requirement for wood pallets to be heat treated for movement between states, the contamination can be passed to multiple locations with food when the pallet remains in the transportation system.
Although there have been efforts to change the transport of food by road and rail through the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), to date nothing has been regulated on the packaging materials that the food is placed on.
One encouraging finding is that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduce the potential for cross-contamination of food due to a quicker viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic packaging. For this reason, SmokinLicious® only packages our smokehouse wood chip products in cardboard packaging that is then placed on a pallet that has been heat treated to an internal core temperature of 75°C/167°F and holds this minimum temperature for 75 minutes. We adhere to a higher heat treatment standard as the health and safety of everyone using our culinary products is of highest importance. We believe that hardwood used for cooking should be regulated independently and adhere to stricter standards than those currently in place for the general wood industry. Until that regulation is written and enforced, SmokinLicious® will self-regulate our product to this level.
At SmokinLicious®, we believe in Quality and Safety over profit! Isn’t it time your smokehouse joins us and takes a proactive stand against microbial bacteria like listeria, salmonella, and E. coli and help in the fight to rid our foods of life-threatening bacteria.
What is your biggest concern in your smokehouse food operation? Leave us a comment to share your views. Bringing you informative recipes, techniques, and the science beyond the fire, smoke, and flavor. That’s SmokinLicious®!
Himalayan Salt Blocks used for grilling! – #himalayansaltblock
Himalayan Salt Blocks: Benefits, Uses, and Tips
Jeffrey Lewis (Bio)
Hey there, friends! I’m Jeffrey. I’m a blogger at Ittefaq Salt. Thank you for joining me, as I share different aspects of my life. I’m so thrilled you stopped by! I love to create a beautiful, thriving life around me and helping others to do the same. I love writing about nature, health, food and nutrition-related topics.
You must be aware of the importance of salt for our body. It is required for the proper functioning of many body functions. But have you ever heard about using Himalayan salt blocks for cooking? Well, this is becoming a trend among those who want to add a wow factor to their cooking. The idea of cooking on these salt blocks is itself very fascinating. But there are more benefits that you can get from these incredible salt blocks as well.
Keep on reading to know more about these amazing salt blocks.
What Are Himalayan Salt Blocks?
As the name suggests, these are the big Himalayan salt slabs that are hand mined from Khewra salt mines in Pakistan. These are hand carved into different sizes and thickness. Click here to know more about these salt blocks.
These salt blocks are made of pink hued Himalayan salt crystals that are locked up in mountains for over 250 million years. This salt is unrefined, unprocessed and free from contaminations. This is to be the purest salt due to the extreme pressure that it has experienced over a long period of time.
Himalayan salt provides a number of health related benefits due to which it is being widely used as an alternative to regular table salt. It contains 84 minerals that fulfill our body’s mineral requirement. It is said to be helpful in maintaining the body’s pH level, regulating blood pressure and reducing water retention.
So, these Himalayan salt blocks have all the goodness of this salt.
Benefits of Himalayan Salt Blocks:
These salt blocks are heat resistant and can hold temperature for a long time which makes them really useful. These are good for both high and low temperature and can be used for cooking and chilling the food.
Cooking on a salt block means you are adding flavor along with 84 minerals of Himalayan salt to your food.
Salt blocks have moisture retention and low absorbency properties which make them anti-bacterial. Because of this, these blocks are an amazing choice for serving and presenting food.
Uses of Himalayan Salt Blocks:
Himalayan salt blocks are so versatile in their usage due to their tendency of temperature. These blocks are hand carved into different sizes so that they can be used for various purposes.
You can cook and grill different kinds of food on these blocks such as meat, vegetables etc. This will make your grilling more fun and exciting. It not only gives a very subtle saltiness to your food but also imparts minerals to the food.
Salt blocks can also be used for curing of some food items such as salmon fish. It will increase the shelf life of the fish.
Due to its ability to hold temperature for a long time it can also be used for chilling the food.
Another amazing use of this block is to use it for serving a variety of foods. It will make the food more presentable.
Tips for Using Salt Blocks:
First of all, you need to choose the salt block that has right size and thickness according to your need.
Salt block needs to be tempered before using it for the first time. For this, you need to heat it slowly at a low temperature in an oven, then increase the temperature gradually until you reach 500°C. After that, cool it down to room temperature. This process will improve the cooking surface and strength.
If you want to use it for cooking, you always need to pre-heat it. It will make cooking and grilling easy.
It is also very easy to maintain and clean a salt block. After using it, cool it down and wipe with any damp cloth. Then let it air dry and store in a cool and dry place.
Himalayan salt blocks are not just pretty with their pink hues but also add flavor and nutritional value to the food along with so many other uses. These all natural blocks are a must have cooking tool in any kitchen to add uniqueness and creativity to the cooking. These will not only add to the beauty of your kitchen but also a unique and creative way to cook the food. So, next time if you want to impress your guests, grill and serve food on these blocks.
An easy way to give your guests or yourself for that matter, a change from the old cocktail is to smoke the entire drink or a component of the cocktail. I’m going to provide you with some examples of how to take any cocktail recipe and advance its flavor to something spectacular. Once you see how simple it is to build a balanced cocktail with smoke infusion as one component, you’ll be ready to upgrade your cocktail recipes to include smoke as your hidden umami.
What to Smoke
The easiest method of smoking a cocktail is to smoke the finished drink. However, depending on what cocktail ingredients your using, this may result in a drink that is too strong. Generally, speaking, a sweeter drink can tolerate more smoke vapor.
Here are some options for you to consider when contemplating a smoked cocktail: you can smoke the entire drink, you can smoke one ingredient of the drink, or you can smoke the water to make the ice for the drink. One of my rules is the more ingredients in the cocktail, the more likely you can smoke the entire drink.
For ingredients, any one or a combination of ingredients can be smoked. Simple syrup, cream, citrus, etc. are all good options. Keep in mind that smoke is attracted the most to cold items so if you want an intense smoked cocktail, chill the ingredient first prior to smoking.
Tasting Notes: Keep in mind, when you cold smoke using a handheld food smoker, the intensity of the smoke can be high. Due to the immediate ignition of the micro chips, the smoke production is great. You can control the level of smoke by only trapping a small quantity of smoke for a lighter infusion versus allowing the container to fill completely with smoke vapor.
Balancing Smoke with Other Flavors
Whether the cocktail contains fruit, hard liquor, or cream, you can make a flavorful and desired cocktail. For a drink like the Jack Frost which contains lots of sweet juice and cream of coconut, smoking the entire drink provides great balance. For a drink like the Harvest Sparkle, smoking the simple syrup works well. Our Cranberry Bourbon cocktail goes hardy whether served hot or cold when we cold smoke the whiskey. And the Winter Wonderland enjoys a smoky layer to the cream of coconut for a luscious take on this four-ingredient cocktail. Never forget, when in a pinch, consider simply smoking the water to make the ice cubes for a no-fail option on the smoked cocktail, that will remain subtle for most any guest who is served.
Do you have a favorite smoked cocktail? Leave us a comment to let us know and subscribe to our channel to get all the tips, techniques, and recipes we bring your way. Always eager to share our expertise on all things wood fired, that’s SmokinLicious®!
I love the idea of making your own dry rub for a variety of reasons, but primarily to allow the cook to control the amount of salt and sugar, two ingredients that are in high ratios for many jarred rubs.
This guide is intended to provide tips to achieve a balance of flavors in the ingredients selected. I’m also going to provide listings of ideal ingredients for specific proteins to help stimulate your creative juices.
Percentage of Water
Before we begin with the actual ingredients for dry rubs , let’s discuss the composition of meat and poultry and why you need to be aware of water content.
Although you may not think of water this way, water is a chemical and it is the dominate one in meat, followed by protein and then fat. For a less active, mature, “fat” animal, water can be 45% of the composition but for a younger, leaner animal it can be as much as 72% moisture. Remember, fat cannot hold water. Texture, color and flavor are affected by the amount of water in the muscle tissue. Water that is retained during forces of pressure and temperature is referred to as “bound water” while water that is lost is called “free water”. You can change the capacity of the muscle to hold the water by disrupting the muscle structure. Examples would be grinding, freezing, chopping, thawing, and salting meat.
Salt and Sugar
Hopefully, you are aware of the ingredient rule that states the first few ingredients listed on a nutritional label are the highest percentages of that item. That means, when you see salt and sugar listed in the top three ingredients, note that those dominate the rub .
Research has shown that higher salt content works very well with cuts of beef, fish, and wild game. Pork tends to do well with rubs that contain higher sugar levels. However, I tend to avoid putting salt into my rubs, preferring to add by hand when the food is ready.
Let’s breakdown the types of salt and sugar so you know how to incorporate them.
Table or Refined Salt: a fine grade salt that is made by dissolving in water which removes everything but sodium chloride. These usually have an additive to prevent them from caking in dispensers and may also contain an iodine additive.
Kosher Salt: a coarse grain that may have an anticaking additive, it is slower to dissolve on food surfaces.
Sea Salt: most are refined producing just over 99% sodium chloride but the grain size can vary from brand to brand.
Pickling Salt: contains no iodine or anticaking additive and dissolves well in water making it ideal for brine recipes
Seasoned Salts: a refined salt that contains a flavor ingredient such as garlic, onion, celery
Curing Salts: these should never be used as an ingredient in a rub as they are designed to preserve meats, which means they include nitrite and possibly nitrate.
White Sugar: this is a highly refined cane or beet sugar that can scorch at higher temperatures
Brown Sugar: this is white sugar combined with molasses so it tends to add more flavor
It’s important to have some level of heat in your rub to balance the sweet and savory ingredients but you need to have a tempered hand to ensure that you don’t add to much. Let’s look at the pepper options:
White Pepper: considered the gentle pepper, it’s light in color and flavor with just a warm heat undertone.
Black Pepper: this can be fine or coarse and has much higher heat level than white and some cayenne peppers.
Cayenne: although I’m listing this separately due to its popularity, cayenne is a chile powder known as ground red pepper, the heat level is front of the line which means you need to add small quantities and taste before adding more.
Chile Pepper: these are the peppers that have a wide variety of heat levels. Common names include: Ancho, Chipotle, Pasilla, New Mexican, Guajillo, Habanero, Jalapeno, Bhut Jolokia, Aji Amarillo.
These are the ingredients that provide for the savory quality to a rub. To me, they provide the depth of flavor to a rub. Some options include: cumin, chili powder, paprika, allspice, clove, cinnamon, ginger, coriander, garlic powder, onion powder, chervil, thyme, anise, nutmeg, mint, basil, rosemary, sage, tarragon, mustard seed.
Combinations for Balance
Now that you understand the three primary components to a good rub, let’s give you some options based on protein.
Beef Option #1: ½ cup kosher salt
½ cup fresh ground black pepper
Beef Option #2: 2 tablespoons each of the following: ground ginger, garlic powder, cinnamon, cocoa powder, Sesame Oil, Worcestershire sauce, Hoisin sauce, Honey. Plus 30 whole allspice. Combine everything with a mortar and pestle.
Pork Option #1:
1/3 cup paprika
1/4 cup sugar
2 tablespoons black pepper
2 tablespoons salt
2 teaspoons dry mustard
2 teaspoons chili powder
1 teaspoon white pepper
1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
Pork Option #2:
1 cup light brown sugar
3 tablespoons paprika
2 teaspoons Lawry’s seasoning salt
1 teaspoon kosher salt
2 teaspoons garlic powder
2 teaspoons black pepper
½ teaspoon cayenne pepper
2 teaspoons oregano
2 teaspoons thyme
½ teaspoon onion powder
1 tablespoon chili powder
½ teaspoon dried mustard
Chicken Option #1:
1 tablespoon cumin
1 tablespoon paprika
1 tablespoon granulated garlic
1 tablespoon granulated onion
1 tablespoon chili powder
1 tablespoon brown sugar
2 tablespoons kosher salt
1 teaspoon chipotle pepper
1 tablespoon black pepper
Chicken Option #2:
12 whole allspice
2 tablespoons Ancho chile pepper
2 tablespoons cinnamon
2 tablespoon curry powder
1 tablespoon cocoa powder
1 tablespoon fresh ground black pepper
There you have it! A basic guide to get you on the way to making your own, customized dry rubs that will be perfectly balanced.
What is your favorite dry rub recipe? Leave us a comment to share your views. Bringing you informative recipes, techniques, and the science beyond the fire, smoke, and flavor. That’s SmokinLicious®!